Andy notes

Hubert Dreyfus’ books Heidegger. Why AI can’t do certain things from a phenomenology point of view Motor intentionality, not formalized If they were formalized too specific Curtains wasn’t based on ML Show either that he’s wrong, or that we he says is outside your area He requires a bit of Heidegger, early on in being in time In between the two

Not ago, not consciousness Self-conscious animals

Aristotle & Kant most important philosophers in general… Plato maybe… Ancient vs. modern, objective… vs subjective 2nd pref of critique of pure reason… up until now, people have tried to see if their concepts fit their objects But what if we reverse it and try to see if the objects fit our concepts Question of truth What our capacity for apprehension allows before we start talking a bout whether things are real, and if they’re real… Modern John locke’s essay concerning human understanding PREFACE, “I was talking with a friend…” what if we can’t know this kind of thing? So first we need to take stock of our intelligence, fit and unfit objects for study… problematic because intelligence is not an object

Hussein: consciousness is always consciousness of an an object

Make it explicit

The categories… first, Kant gets much further than Locke. As far as what is our thinking able to do on its own. Are synthetic a priori judgements possible? I.e., he knows that analytic a priori judgements are possible, because these just unpack concepts. They don’t combine concepts. They’re all tautology. “Synthetic” involves combining. Analytic judgement are a priori. Most synthetic judgements require experience. Is there synthetic a priori. Combine concepts without having any experience. He concludes that they are possible. His examples are from physics, natural laws. 1st & second laws of motion. Some things he thinks are synthetic may be analytic. Whenever you say “all”, that must be a priori. “All” can never be a posterior. Classic… Synthetic…. Can reach higher degrees of probability than we can in a shorter period of time.

Philosophers get hung up on probability… because the philosophical enterprise concerns necessity. Philosophy is not an empirical gathering of useful practicism. The quest for natural laws is thei history of…

Aristotle defines chance away by causality…. Aristotle is trying to get away from chance…he’s a rationalist….

Kant: the source of necessity is the necessary const… Kant’s categories of the understanding. Kant uses category to refer only to the governing concepts of the understanding, which is the faculty of judgment, which is the faculty by which we combine and entail conclusions. There are 4faculties. I sensation, imagineation, understanding, and reason So much of reason has been abused, for Kant. Reason is his endgame. But his description of understanding is what is so influential. Reason combines lots of judgements. eg.g. “What is the source of everything” (some huge question is reason. But when you are making an analytic or synthetic judgment, you’re using what Kant calls understanding. Understanding has baked into it, what Kant callls the Categories. These are, for Kant, setting the parameters for all possible judgements. How Kant discovers the categories… is interesting, and one of Hegels’ biggest critiques. A table of all possible judgements. There are a limited range of judgements that are possible. Operators, …. Quantity (all, some), modality,… quality, and these have 3 subclasses. You end up with 12 categories Kant’s bias is toward the logical functions of judgement Kant is doing an analysis of language… he thinks he’s doing the faculties

Wittgenstein’s career is really important… logic to language Non linguistic representations Limiting thinking is…

Ponte is the embodiment guy. He gets there via gestalt psychology, there’s a holistic way that’s more than the “sum of the parts”

Pragmatism… Aristotle says early in the ethics, we have to establish that there are different degrees of precision… Similar to making an app… situational appprehension

The embodiment thing and the imprecision of human-scale interactions…

“Humanize” button on mixing consoles… drum editing Introducing imprecision… but it’s a machine that does it…

Contrastive loss likened to people called “dialectic” in Hegel. Hegel’s project concerns that truth requires expression, and expression requires development. In essence, not just what it is in itself before all application, an essence is what it instatiates itself to be, what it expresses to be, and as an essence expresses itself in the world, we will see a developmental process take place where it gradually knocks off rough edges of earlier expressions.

The simplest example this the history of th eWorld points toward progress. (Hegel). People agree & disagree. The development of freedom, freedom is expressed more and more fully. We rebel against limitations, that w sense rules are offenses to our nature. The relative lack of autonomy is gradually reduced. Freedom doesn’t have psessession of the sense. It discovers itself itself …. What’s not a good fit, it negates. Where the negations get finer and finer. Where progressively reject less and less. Hegel approaches truth incrementally, developmentally, through negations. (Not positives…). You have to begin with something positive. Som claim.

You could train a cat classifier just on images of dogs and horses

Why is negation the methodological operator for Hegel. For simplicities sake that he’s not forcing the issue or adding things… . His job is to get things arbitrary…

Hegel is saying that you need history to express truth. Not that …

Representation, German word is Forstellung (“imagination”) . For Kant, there are…all the devil is in the details. Difficulty to understand Anschauung (“intuition”) vs Forstelling. For Kant, a rep is for Hegel, it’s somewhat clearer… rep. Thinking vs non-rep. Thinking. (Conceptional thinking “Begriffe” concepts). There’s a fundamental difference between reps and concepts. Reps are in the imagination and semi-empirical and aggregate a loose image of that forms. (E.g. a Prototype to Rosch). Whereas a concept is a pure thought. For Hegel, you can have pure though that is not laden with representions.
I think (Andy thinks) most people would not accept that there is pure thought. But in the history of Phil there are a few key moments where pure thought is pure forward (in Plato, nous. Aristotitl nieces, the direct touching of the one, the highest form o fknowing), Spinoza’s pure generative definitions. Spinoza difference between defining a circle by its properties, vs a rule for generating it. Even in a case where the properties… the generative …. (Are genes generative definitions?) To Hegel, concepts are almost like blueprints, whereas representations are….not. Concepts are grasping the DNA, whereas representations are like a projection of a thing, one of its expressions… reps are fundamentally flawed.

The quest for the axes along which distinguishing things becomes possible Apparent contradictions can disappear when we introduce additional features. What are the dimensions/features of meaning?

Kant: any outer sensation you experience Optus according the space and tie Kant proves that categories are different functions of time

Rep is used to denote more or less something that is present in the imagination, an abstract image.
the sign that they’re reps rather than concepts is that they have a certain feature of arbitrariness What a concept doesn’t have is that it’s not arbitrary

In the dry beginning’s been a struggle of sophistry Sophistry’s been the exploitation of the arbitrary ness of language, rhetoric. Philosophies ancient opponent is sophistry (rhetoric) Relativism has always plagued human beings. Foucault is Nietschzieent Neitsczhe says you should focus on life Geneology is where you trace an idea back to its origin and you find it to be arbitrary

The law of non contradiction is a starting point Code of Condact is … the code of conduct.